20060613

[data] 認識《王的男人》裡的男寺黨藝術


>>大家的留言我都看到了,非常感謝,無奈身上事情很多,我會努力慢慢回的!

>>大陸新浪BLOG,北京師範大學藝術與傳播學院副教授的王男評論→死亡與微笑天下無敵,雖然並非完全贊同,但這麼多評論中只有他寫出接近導演李濬鎰的話:這是一個探討「笑」的真諦的故事。

>>大陸百度李俊基吧轉貼新浪網友的王男評論→,我很喜歡那句:「張生不明白其實在燕山王開金囗將他們留在宮中時,他與孔吉便都成了『王的男人』。」

*男寺黨是什麼

「男寺黨」又稱「男寺黨牌」(Namsadan-pe),對他們最接近的描述應該是「韓國傳統巡迴賣藝團」。據信,在男寺黨發展初期加入此種集團的中國人,為他們帶來中國的散樂與雜伎等,給男寺黨曲藝的影響很深。名稱的來源可能是:表演者皆為男性,與諸寺院結為友好(或一說把戶籍寄在寺廟)的一群人。

男寺黨中從事走索(Chyoltaki)表演的人,稱為「廣大」(Gwang Dae;後亦為男寺黨、山台劇、板索里清唱藝人的通稱),最先是奉宮廷或官廳之召為其表演,後來在朝鮮王朝中、後期逐漸式微,在官方逐漸失寵,流入民間,進入男寺黨的體系。

「廣大」,是電影《王的男人》裡,對於長生與珙吉等人身分的稱呼,也就是在中文裡被翻成「戲子」、「藝人」甚至「優伶」的名詞。但是「廣大」一詞原意為:一人獨自演出寬廣、博大的事物,也有面對廣大群眾的表演者的意思。

「男寺黨」從朝鮮後期開始出現,由40-50人左右組成一團,年齡層很廣,從小孩到老年人都有,很多是孤兒出身。他們在村落與村落之間巡迴,卻從不進入村莊,與一般民眾社會是分離的,擁有自己的社會。身為居無定所的賣藝者,雖然會受到某種程度的歧視,但他們隨心所欲、想到哪就到哪,追求完全自由的生活,具有不受拘束的本質。

他們心懷被一般社會蔑視的「恨」(此處的恨並非指怨恨,而是一種對自身所不能達成的事物或願望的,自責與無力感的心情,將此怨恨內化後吸收、並超越之的情感,這是朝鮮民族的一種內在精神,就像大和民族的內在精神是「物之哀」,中華民族的內在精神是「風雅」、「物我合一」一樣),結合了低下階層對兩班(貴族)不道德行為的不平。他們透過演劇(nori)演出貴族們不道德的醜態,引人發笑,進行諷刺性的批判,但因為庶民普遍知識水準不高,所以男寺黨、假面劇的內容通常都是俚俗的下半身笑話,藉以勾起民眾最直接的共鳴。這就是之所以長生膽敢諷刺燕山君,堅持到最後,以及要用那話兒嘲笑之的原因。

傳統技藝如山台劇、走索等表演時,通常都採取與圍觀民眾互動的形式,如與觀眾對答或要求喝采等,以炒熱現場氣氛,達到台上台下同樂、融為一體的目的,觀眾也會十分投入,做出回應。電影中,男寺黨表演時出現的「ol ssou!」聲音,就是民眾對表演者表示應和的呼聲,意為「對啊!」

*男寺黨的表演內容

男寺黨最主要有六種表演內容如下:

1.朴僉知(朴爺;Pakuchyomuchi)
原本是韓國正統戲劇中的民俗人偶劇,現只有男寺黨的人偶劇繼承此項技藝。也叫做Pakuchyomuchi-nori。我看到的照片以懸絲木偶為多,但也有珙吉在電影中玩的掌中戲。

2.走索
就是長生在電影一開始表演的繩索技藝。繩索高3公尺、長9-10公尺,表演前要先在繩子下進行驅邪再開始。不但必須具備身體運動上的技能,還要表演充滿才智的戲謔,曲調則是江原道的「五鳳山」節。走索是技藝表演,也是戲劇的一種。廣大們一面對民眾說「貴族就是這樣的」,一面在繩子上走著「兩班步」;又一面說「貴婦人們就是這樣走路的」,一面走著「夫人步」,就像長生在繩索上走的步子那樣。

3.假面劇(Tal-chyum)
假面劇由四幕構成,在男寺黨假面劇裡的假面有村夫、老婦、怪男、僕人等九種。雖然電影中曾出現「中央山台戲」與「天一山台戲」的字樣,但山台(假面)劇的名稱是來自「山台都監」(專門掌管假面劇的官職),意指山台劇原為官方所用(據信是從儺戲開始,其根源可以追溯到漢朝的方相式,原為宮中祛邪避疫病的儀式,所以舞台劇《爾》才在一開始特意安排以「廣大」演出驅邪儀式作為開頭),但後來又在官方式微失寵進入民間,是否因此進入男寺黨的體系,成為男寺黨的假面劇?我還有待考據與各方指正。男寺黨假面劇並非由官方主導,而是完全為民服務的劇碼,以台詞、音樂、舞蹈表現諷刺劇,闡述對外來侵略的排斥、封建制度的反抗等民族意識。

4.雜耍(地技)
「演得好衣食無虞、演不好人頭點地」,韓國雜耍流傳著這麼一句話。傳統封建觀念中對武勇的體力較為輕賤,雜耍正是對於此種價值觀的反動。雜耍尊重體能,因為體能正是民眾勞動與防衛的力量泉源,男寺黨並在其中加入戲劇的元素。片中長生等人所做的翻筋斗就是雜耍中的一種。

5.農樂(Punmul-nori)
農樂是韓國最典型的傳統民俗音樂,男寺黨農樂則是現存農樂中最具規模與制度的。表演者戴著頭頂有長絲帶的帽子,一邊演奏樂器一邊變換隊形跳舞。就像是我們在片子開頭看到的那些藍衣人的表演。

6.轉盤子(Bena)
傳統技藝之一,煙管、刀子、洗臉盆、鍋碗瓢盆,什麼都可以拿來轉。負責轉的人與戲劇丑角「Maho氏」一面對話一面交換鍋碗瓢盆,兩人之間的對話內容多是對於封建社會的批判。在喜樂院選拔戲子時可以看到有人拿大陶缽來轉。

*男寺黨的樂器與音樂

男寺黨所用的「四物樂」在這裡有很簡單詳盡的解說,可以去看一下,本篇文章最上面,王男影片的最後一幕中,除掉珙吉手上拿的小手鼓,長生、六甲、七得、八福手上拿的剛好就是四物樂的四種樂器。感謝網友tenorsax。


部分資料來源:1999.04.21 民団新聞

10 則留言:

Rita 提到...

Dear Miyako,

Thanks for educating us with all these info you collected for our better understanding of Korean arts. Very interesting.

I ordered the 1 disk version which came out on June 2 (of course I ordered the limited edition as well) and waited patiently for my DVD to arrive from Korea. It finally arrived yesterday but I missed the time to go to the post office to pick it up. *sleepless night* :(

So finally, today after dinner, I spent 2 well worth hours watching it. First, I have to say that this movie lived up to my expectation. Second, I am glad that I didn't born as a commoner in ancient Korea.

I didn't cry at all while watching it, not even towards the ending, but I felt a deep sense of sorrow expanded inside me, so much that I felt suffocating! There's no real climax in it; the only scene kept my heart racing was the hunting scene. I felt this grief not because of their intertwined relationships, rather it's more to the events surrounding them that accumulated to this sad ending. Their 'love' relationship subplot paled in comparison to what the main plot trying to convey. Nonetheless, all the actors and actresses did an excellent job in portraying their roles. I love the play- within- play in particular.

I went back and re-read your post, the one you wrote right after you came back from Korea. In that post, you raised a lot of questions about life in general. Now I am really amazed of your observation (since you watched it without subtitles!)

Life is a stage and we are all players. We play different roles depending on the situation. A lot of time we have to gamble(decision making), and just wish that we are making the right choice without regrets afterwards. Making a living is tough, and I am glad that I still have the enthusiasm with my job as JS and GG with their performances. They shined in the movie whenever they're performing a skit. I have read yours and minaself post on the discussion on blindness. Totally agree with both of you.

Some of the words the translators used were quite harsh and graphic. eg. JS told the troupe master to 'stop pimping off of GG', and the troupe master told JG to 'shut his trap'. There are some minor sentences they didn't sub, but overall they did a good job. Do you know when the Taiwanese version becomes available?

This 1 disk version comes with a few movie previews (July and August screenings) but no 'Fly Daddy Fly':(

As I am writing this, I am listening to LSH's 'In Yeon'. Tears start to run down my face with the last 3 sentences of this song. Finally I can let the emotion flows out...

This movie needs to watch at least 3-4 times. Viewing pleasure, in my opinion, increases with one's life experiences.

貓書房工友 提到...

喔喔喔喔@@!
給MIyako用力大鼓掌!辛苦辛苦啊XD!

單眼皮女生-Reva 提到...

哇~~~Miyako超厲害的
不過Rita為何已經拿到DVD了???
嗚..我也要啦~~~

ayla 提到...

Miyako愈是這樣說,我就愈期待看王男啦~~>.<
有了這些資料,我相信會看得更投入呵

高中San 提到...

Linda給了你的blog

禮尚往來一下,
下面是我的^_^

rita 提到...

Dear Miyako,

My friend found this Japanese trailer of K&C. It'll screen in Japan next january!

http://kadokawa-herald.co.jp/lineup_report/trailer/trailer.swf

credit: kadakawa-herald

miyako 提到...

Dear Branda,
>>很期待DVD中的其他珍貴資料尤其是interviews。

我最希望的是interviews有字幕...XD

>>當看到那些站出來說自己才是原來孔吉的首選的某些人我便會忍不住發笑....不知道你有沒有看過這個視頻?

我已經不想理那些馬後炮的人了= =,這個視訊我有,非常感謝...話說我應該來弄個ftp或CB教學...XD

>>這小孩給我的感覺是既藏不住事情又怕寂寞的性格,所以他是會願意跟fans分享這麼私人的事情的。而且,我覺得準基的目的不止是讓fans「看看」他的祖母,他也想透過這個渠道讓祖母「看看」他的fans,「看看」他這個超大型的fan meeting,也「看看」他的成就,這一直是準基的遺憾。

我很喜歡妳的想法,讓我覺得自己真的有點太過「腹黑」(笑)。石榴汁的確不甚好喝,你對石榴汁廣告的評論真的太棒XD,我的準基飯朋友初看二版還說他是否改行當AV女優了呢(笑)

Dear Rita,
>>They shined in the movie whenever they're performing a skit.

I love their performance, too. Knowing of their art, maybe we'll get more information in this movie. So I collected lots of data, haha~~ I felt extreme lackness of Korean traditional art in my collecting. Lots from Japan...

>>the troupe master told JG to 'shut his trap'. There are some minor sentences they didn't sub

the troupe master said: 是珙吉自己願意,關你什麼閒事!I'm not sure if the translation is offered by that scholar who eagered to translate for KatC in 坎城影展...

>>Viewing pleasure, in my opinion, increases with one's life experiences.

Totally agree with you.^_^

PS: I also cooprate with Reva to hold the Blog of Junki's news. Welcome to join~ :
http://leejunki-at-taiwan.blogspot.com/

>>DEAR 貓書房、Reva、ayla,
感謝你們啦CHU~~

>>高中那個學妹
被你發現我發花痴的地方了,我決定連結你的BLOG以玆報償,哈哈哈哈哈~~~

kirakira 提到...

看著這篇男寺黨藝術的介紹,彷彿像是看到日本藝能史般的熟悉感(慚愧的是中國的藝能史反倒不熟)。不管是跟宮廷或寺廟的關係、樂器、男寺黨的人數與型態,還有表演內容真的都很像(單從大要上來看,我想細部還是有差異)。

我個人疑惑的是,就文中的介紹來看,男寺黨的表演似乎特別強調「政治嘲諷」的這個面向?又,初期男寺黨感覺是單純的雜技表演,戲劇上的表現是後來才出現的?

js 提到...

Gay-Themed Film Gives Closet Door a Tug

By NORIMITSU ONISHI
Published: March 31, 2006

SEOUL, South Korea — "King and the Clown" lacked a single top star from South Korea's booming film industry, or the other usual ingredients of a surefire blockbuster.
And in a country where homosexuality was removed from the Youth Protection Commission's list of "socially unacceptable" acts only in 2004, the film centered on a gay love triangle in a 16th-century royal court: a young male clown torn between his love for a fellow clown and an amorous king.

But to everyone's surprise, not least the director's, in mid-March the movie became the most popular ever in South Korea's history, seen by more than 12 million people, or one in four residents. In American terms, it would perhaps be the equivalent of "Brokeback Mountain" — to which this movie has been loosely compared — grossing as much as "Titanic."

As a cultural phenomenon, "King and the Clown" has led to sometimes confused, sometimes uncomfortable discussions here about the nature of homosexuality, something that was rarely discussed publicly until a few years ago.

At the core of the movie, which the producers hope to take to the United States, are two male clowns, a masculine one named Jang Saeng and a feminine, delicate-looking one named Gong Gil, who assumes the female part in skits. Itinerant performers who depend on handouts for their survival, they are condemned to death one day for a bawdy skit insulting Yonsan, a king remembered in Korean history for his tyranny. But after succeeding in making the king laugh, the clowns are pardoned and allowed to become court jesters.

The king becomes enamored of Gong Gil, and the ensuing relationship fuels Jang Saeng's jealousy. Physical displays of affection are subtle: the king kisses the sleeping clown in one brief scene; in another showing the two clowns sleeping next to each other, Jang Saeng gently tucks in his partner.

All tame perhaps, but many here consider the movie a taboo-breaker in its matter-of-fact portrayal of homosexuality. Popular culture had long ignored gays or, in more recent years, relegated them to caricatured roles.

"One or two films tried to describe gay relationships in a serious way, but were unsuccessful commercially," said Tcha Sung-Jai, one of the country's best-known producers and a professor of film at Dongkuk University. "That's why everyone in the industry was so surprised when 'King and the Clown' became a hit.

"I cried when I saw the movie," Mr. Tcha added, "and I'm a very strong heterosexual."

In addition to homosexuality, other previously taboo subjects, like human rights violations during South Korea's military rule and North Korea-related themes, have been broached recently in film. Movies have mirrored, and sometimes tried to stay abreast of, a South Korean society that has been socially and politically transformed in the last decade.

Until a decade ago, when a tiny gay rights movement was started by Korean-Americans on a few college campuses here, most Koreans had been completely unaware even of the existence of gays. Even though Seoul has long had two neighborhoods with small clusters of gay bars, Itaewon and Chongno, they remained hidden, and homosexuality went unmentioned.

Then, in 2000, the issue was tossed into the public area when a well-known television actor, Hong Suk Chon, became the first major figure to declare his homosexuality. Mr. Hong was immediately dropped from his show, and his career appeared over. But in 2003, in a sign of changing attitudes, the actor began a successful comeback.

"We feel that the last 10 years is the equivalent of a hundred years because so many changes occurred in such a short period," Oh Ga Ram, an official at the Korean Gay Men's Human Rights Group, said in an interview in the organization's office in Chongno.

No other public figure has come out of the closet, and most Korean gays remain hidden. But Mr. Oh said "King and the Clown" was a "positive step" because "there is a discourse now that did not exist before."

The discourse, though, was often confused, Mr. Oh said. Because the love triangle hinges on a feminine male clown, some viewers say the relationship is not a gay one at all. "In the minds of many Koreans now, 'pretty males' equal gay," he said.

The movie's title in Korean is more direct about the nature of the relationship: "The King's Man."

Still, its director, Lee Jun Ik, was hesitant to define his movie as a gay-themed one and played it down as breaking taboos.

"This is not homosexuality as defined by the West," Mr. Lee said in an interview. "It's very different from 'Brokeback Mountain.' In that movie, homosexuality is fate, not a preference. Here, it's a practice."

Mr. Lee said he had been more interested in evoking the world of itinerant clowns, many of whom were involved in same-sex relationships.

One person the director consulted was Kim Gi Bok, 77, who is considered the last surviving itinerant clown. Mr. Kim was amused at the attention he had gotten because of the film.

"Before, we were treated as beggars, but now we are considered traditional artists," he said in an interview in Anseong, a town two hours north of Seoul, where a center to keep alive his craft was established.

Intense relationships developed among itinerant clowns, Mr. Kim said, because they worked in all-male troupes and traveled together all the time.

"It was also difficult to get a wife," he said. "We were beggars. Who would marry a beggar?"

As in the movie, a masculine clown and a feminine clown often became a couple. The masculine clown showed his love by buying his partner, called biri, a watch, Mr. Kim said.

"They would stay together all the time, sleeping in the same room, helping each other out," he said. "The biri would go into people's kitchens and even beg for food for both of them."

"Some of the biris were extremely beautiful — they had hair down to here," Mr. Kim said, pointing to his waist, as his eyes lit up at the memory. He added that some clowns who did manage to marry would sometimes leave their wives for fellow clowns.

Mr. Kim himself married and had one son. He said he, too, had biris during his life, though he said the relations had not been sexual.

"Relations between men were very sincere and genuine," Mr. Kim said. "It was an amazing, remarkable relationship, much closer than anything between a husband and wife."

js 提到...

source:
New York Times

Seoul Journal